This web site is dedicated to the science—not the art or philosophy—of melodicas. The best tool for exploring that is the scientific method, so I thought I would review the process. Keep in mind that there is no official definition of the scientific method, just a set of generally agreed on steps:
Make an observation or set of observations.
Ask questions about the observations. Gather information.
Form a hypothesis—a potential explanation for the observations.
Test the hypothesis by making predictions and creating experiments in which those predictions can be tested and reproduced.
Analyze the data generated experimentally and draw conclusions. The hypothesis may need to be rejected or modified. A new hypothesis would lead us back to step 4.
Reproduce the experimental results (ideally, have someone else do this). In the end, all predictions should match observed results.
The scientific method isn’t complete explained with a sequence of steps.
Hypotheses must be testable and falsifiable. Falsifiable means that there must be a test result that would say that the hypothesis is incorrect. (Religion and conspiracy theories are things that are not falsifiable and, therefore, not subject to scientific analysis).
Hypotheses are formed using deductive or inductive reasoning. The former starts with a hypothesis and goes on to predictions and testings; the latter starts with observations and creates a hypothesis that explains them.
The scientific method never absolutely proves anything. Rather, it approaches the truth. Proven hypotheses turn into theories as they gather increasing supportive evidence, but theories may need to be revised as we learn more.